Understanding Nigeria’s Tax Treaty with ECOWAS Countries

Understanding Nigeria’s Tax Treaty with ECOWAS Countries. In a significant move towards economic integration and cooperation, Nigeria has entered into a tax treaty with ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) countries.

This treaty aims to eliminate double taxation on income, capital, and inheritance, thereby fostering a more conducive environment for cross-border trade and investment within the region.

Let’s delve into the details of this treaty and understand its implications through real-world case studies, while also considering the underlying principles of international taxation.

Understanding Nigeria’s Tax Treaty with ECOWAS Countries:

Definition, Purpose, and Objectives of a Tax Treaty


A tax treaty, also known as a Double Taxation Agreement (DTA), is a bilateral agreement between two or more countries to avoid or mitigate the effects of double taxation. It specifies the tax obligations of individuals and businesses that earn income in one country while residing in another.


The primary purpose of a tax treaty is to facilitate international trade and investment by reducing the tax burden on individuals and businesses operating across borders. It ensures that income is not taxed twice, thereby promoting economic cooperation and preventing tax evasion.


  1. Elimination of Double Taxation: To prevent the same income from being taxed by both the country where it is earned (source country) and the country where the taxpayer resides (residence country).
  2. Tax Certainty and Stability: To provide clear guidelines on tax obligations, thereby reducing the risk of disputes and fostering a stable tax environment.
  3. Promotion of Cross-Border Trade and Investment: To make it easier and more attractive for businesses and individuals to engage in international activities by reducing tax barriers.
  4. Prevention of Tax Evasion: To facilitate the exchange of information between tax authorities, helping to combat tax evasion and fraud.
  5. Fair Taxation: To ensure that tax burdens are distributed fairly and that taxpayers in similar circumstances are treated equally.

Tax Implications of Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions in Nigeria

Key Principles of International Taxation

1. Residence Principle

According to the residence principle, individuals and businesses are taxed based on their residence status. Residents are taxed on their worldwide income, while non-residents are taxed only on the income sourced within the country.

Case Study: Global Consultant

  • Scenario: Sarah, a Nigerian resident, provides consulting services to clients in multiple ECOWAS countries.
  • Application: Under the residence principle, Sarah is taxed on her worldwide income in Nigeria. This means she needs to report and pay taxes on her earnings from all countries, including those from her ECOWAS clients.
  • Outcome: Sarah can claim tax credits in Nigeria for any taxes paid in other ECOWAS countries to avoid double taxation.

2. Source Principle

The source principle dictates that income should be taxed in the country where it is generated. This principle ensures that the country providing the economic environment for income generation receives tax revenues.

Case Study: Export Business

  • Scenario: XYZ Ltd., a Nigerian company, exports goods to Ghana and earns profits from these sales.
  • Application: According to the source principle, XYZ Ltd. pays tax on the profits earned from sales in Ghana to the Ghanaian tax authorities.
  • Outcome: XYZ Ltd. will not be taxed again in Nigeria on the same profits if a tax credit is available for taxes paid in Ghana.

3. Avoidance of Double Taxation

Double taxation occurs when the same income is taxed in two different countries. Treaties like the one signed by Nigeria and ECOWAS countries aim to prevent this by providing mechanisms such as tax credits and exemptions.

Case Study: Multinational Employee

  • Scenario: John, a Nigerian resident, is employed by a company in Ivory Coast and spends significant time working there.
  • Application: Without the treaty, John might be taxed on his salary in both Nigeria and Ivory Coast.
  • Outcome: With the treaty, John can apply for a tax credit in Nigeria for the taxes paid in Ivory Coast, ensuring he is not taxed twice on the same income.

Key Provisions of the Treaty

1. Elimination of Double Taxation

The treaty ensures that income earned in one ECOWAS country is not taxed again in another member country. This includes various types of income such as:

  • Employment Income: Wages and salaries.
  • Business Profits:Earnings from business operations.
  • Dividends, Interest, and Royalties:Income from investments and intellectual property.
  • Capital Gains:Profits from the sale of assets.
  • Inheritance: Assets inherited from deceased persons

2. Determining Tax Residency

  • The treaty establishes clear criteria for determining tax residency to avoid conflicts over which country has the right to tax certain incomes. Typically, an individual is considered a tax resident if they:
  • Spend more than 183 days in a country within a tax year.
  • Have significant ties such as a permanent home or primary economic interests.

3. Mechanisms for Tax Credits and Exemptions

  • Tax Credits: Residents of one ECOWAS country can claim a credit for taxes paid in another member country, which is applied against their tax liability in their country of residence.
  • Exemptions: Certain incomes may be exempt from tax in one country if they are already taxed in the other country, preventing double taxation.

4. Exchange of Tax Information

The treaty includes provisions for the exchange of tax-related information between member countries to enhance transparency, combat tax evasion, and ensure proper tax administration.

5. Non-Discrimination Clause

The treaty ensures that nationals of one member country are not subjected to more burdensome taxes than nationals of another member country in similar circumstances, promoting fair treatment across the region.

Benefits of the Treaty

1. For Businesses:

  • Reduced Tax Burden: Businesses operating in multiple ECOWAS countries benefit from reduced tax liabilities.
  • Encouragement for Investment:The elimination of double taxation encourages businesses to invest and expand across the region.

2. For Individuals:

  • Simplified Tax Compliance: Individuals working or investing in multiple ECOWAS countries face simpler tax obligations and reduced risk of double taxation.
  • Financial Stability: Clear tax rules provide greater financial predictability and security.

Case Studies

Case Study 1: Cross-Border Business Expansion

Scenario: ABC Ltd., a Nigerian manufacturing company, plans to expand its operations to Ghana. The company is concerned about potential double taxation on profits earned in Ghana and Nigeria.

Application of the Treaty:
  • Income Tax: According to the source principle, ABC Ltd. will pay corporate income tax on profits earned in Ghana as per Ghanaian tax laws.
  • Tax Credits: Under the residence principle, the profits repatriated to Nigeria will not be subjected to additional corporate income tax. Instead, Nigeria will provide a tax credit for taxes paid in Ghana.

Outcome: ABC Ltd. benefits from reduced tax liabilities, making the expansion financially viable. The company can reinvest the saved funds into further growth initiatives.

Case Study 2: Individual Cross-Border Employment

Scenario: Mr. Ade, a Nigerian resident, works for a company that requires him to spend significant time in both Nigeria and Ivory Coast. He earns income in both countries and is worried about being taxed twice on the same income.

Application of the Treaty:
  • Residency Determination: If Mr. Ade spends more than 183 days in Nigeria, he is considered a Nigerian tax resident according to the residence principle.
  • Income Tax: His income will be taxed primarily in Nigeria. Ivory Coast will not tax the same income, or if it does, Nigeria will provide a tax credit for the taxes paid in Ivory Coast.

Outcome: Mr. Ade avoids double taxation and enjoys clearer tax obligations, providing greater financial stability and predictability.

Case Study 3: Inheritance Across Borders

Scenario: Mrs. Amina, a Nigerian citizen, inherits property from her uncle in Senegal. She is concerned about inheritance tax obligations in both countries.

Application of the Treaty:
  • Inheritance Tax: According to the source principle, the property is subject to inheritance tax only in Senegal, where it is located.
  • Exemption:Nigeria will not impose additional inheritance tax on the same property.

Outcome: Mrs. Amina benefits from reduced tax complexity and liability, enabling her to fully inherit and utilize the property without additional financial burdens.


Nigeria’s tax treaty with ECOWAS countries marks a pivotal step towards deeper economic integration and cooperation within the region. By eliminating double taxation, the treaty not only simplifies tax compliance but also enhances the attractiveness of cross-border trade and investment.

Businesses and individuals alike stand to benefit from reduced tax burdens and clearer tax rules, fostering a more stable and predictable economic environment.

  1. Stay Informed: Regularly review the provisions of the tax treaty and any updates from the Nigerian government and ECOWAS.
  2. Consult Tax Experts: Engage with tax professionals to understand the specific implications of the treaty on your business or personal finances.
  3. Plan Strategically: Develop tax planning strategies that leverage the benefits of the treaty to optimize your tax position.
  4. Comply with Reporting Requirements: Ensure accurate and timely reporting of income and taxes to both Nigerian and ECOWAS tax authorities to avoid penalties.

By understanding and utilizing the provisions of the tax treaty, businesses and individuals can optimize their tax liabilities and enhance their financial and operational stability within the ECOWAS region.

Olatunji Abdulrazaq CNA, ACTI

Founder/CEO Taxmobile.Online